Artificial Intelligence & Healthcare

Merriam-Webster defines Artificial Intelligence (AI) as the branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior on computers, or the capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior.

How do you imagine AI in healthcare? Is it more like No. 5 in Short Circuit or Sonny in I, Robot? Let’s talk about AI and healthcare at the #HealthXPH tweet chat on tonight 29 Jul 9 pm Manila time (9 am EST).

Bertalan Mesko has enumerated the ways that AI can redesign healthcare on the

  • Mining medical records
  • Designing treatment plans
  • Assisting repetitive jobs
  • Getting the most out of in-person and online consultations
  • Health assistance and medication management
  • Precision medicine
  • Drug creation
  • Helping people make healthier choices and decisions
  • Analyzing a healthcare system

What do you think? Can you add to this list?

T1. In what ways do you think will AI redesign healthcare?

Pierre Pina enumerated the 7 jobs that will be killed first by robots. These are:

  1. Truckers
  2. Construction workers
  3. Legal advisors
  4. Medical staff and doctors
  5. Accountants
  6. Editors
  7. Sellers

Healthcare workers are on the list because of the excitement surrounding IBM Watson who is getting smarter daily. After all for 1,000 cancer cases, Watson matched the treatment plan of oncologists 99% of the time and even suggested options that oncologists missed in 30%.

While I am willing to concede that Watson can beat a human doctor in intelligence, I’ve always thought though that empathy is something that AI can never replace. But John Brandon thinks that by offering information in the right amount “it knows we need to reduce stress or understand people on a deeper level,” AI can teach us to have more empathy.  Maybe something like Samantha in Her.

T2. Do you think that AI will replace doctors? Why or why not?

Bernard Marr curated the best quotes on artificial intelligence on Two quotes stand out from Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk.

“The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race….It would take off on its own, and re-design itself at an ever increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete, and would be superseded.”— Stephen Hawking told the BBC

“I’m increasingly inclined to think that there should be some regulatory oversight, maybe at the national and international level, just to make sure that we don’t do something very foolish. I mean with artificial intelligence we’re summoning the demon.” —Elon Musk warned at MIT’s AeroAstro Centennial Symposium

And now even Mark Zuckerberg has joined the fray calling Elon a naysayer.

T3 Do you agree with Stephen Hawking or Elon Musk that AI will end humanity? Why or why not?

See you at the #HealthXPH tweet chat!

Self-diagnosis: valid or dangerous?

At the recently concluded #hcsmph2017, a question was asked during the Unconference –

Is self-diagnosis online valid?

The question was raised in relation to mental health and answering online questionnaires to see if one is depressed. Another participant had also asked the same question, relating how a friend’s father had died of stroke because of a neglected headache. Apparently, the family members had relied on Google search and delayed going to the doctor. This inspired me to have this topic for the next #HealthXPH tweet chat on 29 April Saturday, 9 pm Manila time. I had previously written about Dr. Google and why self-diagnosis annoys doctors.

T1 As a healthcare professional or patient, how useful are online symptom checkers or screening tools?

A quick PubMed search led me to work by Ameringen VM et al, Internet Screening for Anxiety Disorders: Treatment-Seeking Outcomes in a Three-month Follow-up Study. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Dec 15;230(2):689-94. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.10.031. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

… 51% sought treatment after completing the MACSCREEN. In the 49% who did not seek treatment, fear of medication (57%), discomfort talking to their doctor about anxiety (28%) and the belief that symptoms were not severe enough (28%) were cited as barriers.

It is striking that less than half of those who met criteria for anxiety or mood disorder using the online screening tool sought treatment.

Another study looked at the accuracy of the Boots WebMD symptom checker in the self-diagnosis of ENT Symptoms by Farmer SE et al. Clin Otolaryngol. 2011 Oct;36(5):517-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-4486.2011.02375.x. Of 61 patients, the WebMD symptom checker 70% (n=43) included the correct diagnosis but only 16% (n=10) of these included the correct first diagnosis. Hence the authors concluded that the symptom checker provided a large number of differential diagnoses which may be inappropriate. The symptom checker completely missed the correct diagnosis in 30% (n=18).

T2. How can healthcare professionals support patients when they search online for health information?

Lydia Nayer writes in Affinity Magazine

In an ideal world, everyone would have access to proper medical care without the fear of stigma and abuse due to their medical condition.  However, since this is not an ideal world yet, we must accept that many people will self-diagnose and we should respect their diagnosis and support them in seeking treatment.  Instead of worrying that people who self-diagnose are “faking” or  “attention seekers”, we should focus on creating a healthcare system free of bias and accessible to all, no matter their background.

In my Google search on this topic, I ran into another term self-advocacy. Morgan White writes about the difference between self-diagnosis and self-advocacy

Self-advocacy involves educating yourself on your symptoms and behaviors in regards to your health… Living with a disorder does in fact exist outside of the medical context. Disorders do not become real only when diagnosed by a professional. Those without access to a diagnosis still have the disorder, and a self-diagnosis can help them cope. A diagnosis is simply an explanation for why you are who you are. Labeling yourself with a disorder or illness can help you understand your actions and feelings and learn to cope with your disorder. It enables you to find a community of people who understand and support you. Self-diagnosis leads to you making sense of yourself.

Also at the #hcsmph2017 Unconference, a participant who was a librarian stood up and asked if doctors are threatened by Dr. Google. They shouldn’t be! Doctors need to accept that Morgan White has written in the excerpt above, which I repeat here for emphasis – Disorders do not become real only when diagnosed by a professional. I’ve had patients consult me who are unbelievably calm when I tell them the diagnosis – because they already know. They are not in shock but often feel relieved, even if it means that their worst fears have been confirmed.

T3. What advice would you give for those who seek health information online?

I always mention Medline Plus when asked. Their page on Evaluating Health Information is a good place to start. I also recommend looking for the Health on the Net (HON) code seal though many websites do not apply for certification hence limiting its usefulness. Better if their physician can give an internet prescription, a curated list of websites for further reading after a consultation.


#OurLoveStory in 15 Tweets

So yesterday was Friday the 13th and my 15th wedding anniversary. I’d seen someone do anniversary tweets before (cannot remember still who it was, so if you do please leave a comment). I thought this was a good idea to surprise my husband. Only problem was he’s not on Twitter so I had to post a summary on Facebook. I wasn’t sure how it would go down, as it was PDA (Public Display of Affection). But I think he’s enjoying the attention.

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Consumerism in healthcare and the Physician-Patient Relationship

On, Dr. Rick Nauert writes in this post entitled Money Changes Physician-Patient Relationship – 

“We have forgotten that aspect of professional folk wisdom,” Hall said. “Doctors need to make their treatment recommendations in the context of what patients can and can’t afford, with the understanding that some patients can’t afford what they might recommend.”

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The Challenge of Care Coordination

As an endocrinologist, care coordination is something I struggle with in my clinic. There being only 200 or so endocrinologists in the Philippines, I often see patients from places where there are no endocrinologists. They travel great distances to see me. As you can imagine, persons with diabetes will need care from others such as an ophthalmologist, cardiologist, nutritionist, dentist etc. These healthcare professionals may or may not be available where the patients live. If they are not available where they are, I have to choose who to refer to in the faculty medical arts building (attached to a medical school and a university hospital) where I hold clinic and ask my secretary to schedule an appointment for them. While all medical specialties are housed under one roof, scheduling can be hit or miss. Sometimes, the patient can be seen that same day before they travel back home and sometimes not. Tracking whether the patient has indeed been seen is another problem. I can find out months later when the patient comes to her appointment with me that she was not seen for example by an ophthalmologist despite my referral.

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Why does self-diagnosis annoy doctors?

This picture has circulated in my Facebook feed since last month. It didn’t feel right but I decided not to say anything as I saw some colleagues sharing it. I was wary of offending someone. However, there was one post in particular recently where I simply could not in good conscience keep quiet. And I said –

I am a physician and I find this picture offensive.

So what happened? The person who posted the picture deleted my reply! That’s what made me decide to write this blog post. Continue reading